But Highway 1, which connects the Florida Keys to the mainland utilizes many of the railroad's viaducts, bridges and roadbed. The business also profited from the sale of seeds and farm implements. He Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. [3] The Royal Poinciana Hotel was at the time the largest wooden structure in the world. It was Flagler's idea to use the rebate system to strengthen the firm's position against competitors and the transporting enterprises alike. This touched off a firestorm of protest from independent oil well owners, including boycotts and vandalism, which eventually led to the discovery of Standard Oil's part in the deal. Flagler was devoted to her and read to her every night when he returned home from work. "Henry Flagler He played one railroad against another in order to increase concessions. Flagler and Rockefeller saw themselves as the industry's saviors, "an angel of mercy" absorbing the weak and making the industry as a whole stronger, more efficient, and more competitive. [3], Flagler was born in Hopewell, New York, the son of Isaac Flagler, a Presbyterian minister and his wife, the widowed Elizabeth Caldwell (Morrison) Harkness. During the Civil War, he earned large profits selling food and other commodities to the Union army. In 1877, Flagler and his family moved to New York City, which was becoming the center of commerce in the U.S.. Standard was doing more and more business in New York, and Flagler traveled between Cleveland and New York frequently. Smith would not sell, but he planted the seed of St. Augustine's and Florida's future in Flagler's mind. [citation needed]. Control of the Flagler fortune largely passed into the hands of Mary Lily Kenan's family of sisters and brother, who survived into the 1960s. May 20, 1913 ( age 83 ) Popularity. It was named for Henry Morrison Flagler , a famous railroad builder who built the Florida East Coast Railway . Franklin W. Smith had just finished building Villa Zorayda and Flagler offered to buy it for his honeymoon. Two years after being widowed, Flagler married Ida Alice Shourd, his late wife's nurse. ." Translate; Career; Random; Home Entrepreneur Henry Flagler . The committee ultimately discovered the previously unknown scope of Standard Oil's business interests. Besides its two refineries and a barrel plant in Cleveland, it possessed a fleet of tank cars and warehouses in the oil regions as well as warehouses and tanks in New York. In later years, John Rockefeller acknowledged that Flagler was the "brains" behind Standard Oil. Miami is a subtropical city located in sunshine state Florida in between the Everglades and North Atlantic Ocean. Public Company Flagler and Rockefeller had envisioned the use of pipelines as an alternative transport system for oil and began a campaign to build and acquire them. FLORIDA KEYS — Henry Morrison Flagler never lived in the Florida Keys, but he left a more lasting and valuable mark on the island chain than many lifelong residents. [39], When Flagler envisioned successes in the oil industry, he and Rockefeller started building their fortune in refining oil in Cleveland, Ohio. Solomon had eleven children including Isaac, Henry's father. Flying over Biscayne Bay, you can observe the wonderful beaches that attract around 14 million visitors each year. Henry Morrison Flagler was born on January 2, 1830 in Hopewell, New York, to Reverend and Mrs. Isaac Flagler. (October 16, 2020). [6], After the failure of his salt business in Saginaw, Flagler returned to Bellevue in 1866 and reentered the grain business as a commission merchant with the Harkness Grain Company. People have always thought that Florida was a wonderful place to live and visit because of the sunshine, but it wasn't easily accessible in the late 1800's. [25] The firm was attacked by journalists and politicians throughout its existence, in part for these monopolistic methods, giving momentum to the antitrust movement. See more ideas about flagler, florida, old florida. Flagler was generous with his wealth, donating money to build schools, hospitals and churches and to provide relief to farmers after freezes destroyed produce. ... Fun Facts about the name Flagler. The Flaglers returned to New York, where his wife's condition deteriorated. Flagler became restless with his distillery and grain business and, in 1863, he moved to Saginaw, Michigan, where he invested in the salt industry. By then the trust still had a 70% market share of the refined oil market but only 14% of the U.S. crude oil supply. Sales: $2.01 billion Flagler returned to Bellevue having lost his initial $50,000 investment and an additional $50,000 he had borrowed from his father-in-law and Daniel. His personal life was changing as well. It had become the richest, biggest, most feared business in the world, seemingly immune to the boom and bust of the business cycle, consistently racking up profits year after year. In 2014, Flagler College was ranked eighth among regional colleges in the South according to the U.S. News & World Report college survey. Pennzoil and Chevron have remained separate companies. Together David and Elizabeth had a son Daniel M. Harkness before his death. The couple had two daughters, Jennie Louise, born in 1855, and Carrie, born in 1858. [36] Although her work prompted a huge backlash against the company, Tarbell claims to have been surprised at its magnitude. American financier Henry M. Flagler partnered with John D. Rockefeller, Sr., in establishing the Standard Oil Company. He discovered that the state's poor transportation was deterring development. Along the way, Flagler built additional hotels, establishing Florida's east coast cities as tourist destinations. Some 4,000 workers, including many as young as 15, became slaves in all but name." [citation needed], One of the most effective attacks on Flagler and Rockefeller and their firm was the 1905 publication of The History of the Standard Oil Company, by Ida Tarbell, a leading muckraker. Julia DeForest Tuttle, the "Mother of Miami," is widely recognized as the only female founder of a major American city. His personal dedication to the state of Florida was demonstrated when he began construction on his private residence, Kirkside, in St. Augustine. In 1998, when two brush fires threatened to become one huge brush fire in Flagler County, a mandatory evacuation was ordered for the entire county. Industrialist New York doctors advised him to take his wife to the Florida panhandle, which, because of its climate, served as a respite for the infirm. It soon was doing one tenth of all the petroleum business in the United States. Turnover was high. Flagler spent the rest of his life developing land in Florida. Workers encountered mosquitoes, quicksand lakes and hurricanes during construction. Even more critical, the invention of the light bulb gradually began to erode the dominance of kerosene for illumination. [18] The railroad, seeing Standard's incursion into the transportation and pipeline fields, struck back and formed a subsidiary to buy and build oil refineries and pipelines. "[65], Miami's main east-west street is named Flagler Street and is the main shopping street in Downtown Miami. Standard went on to build and buy oil pipelines and, by 1884, it controlled not only refining, but transportation of crude oil. Thanks to Henry Flagler people were able to enjoy Florida because his railroad made it possible to travel faster and to more locations along the East Coast and down to the Keys. 50 Most Interesting facts About O Henry You should know. Nine trustees, including Rockefeller, ran the 41 companies in the trust. In reality, the Keys were a living hell: isolated islands with unbearable heat, relentless mosquitoes, poisonous plants, rampant disease and meager medical care. He dredged the canal from the ocean into Biscayne Bay, making Miami a deep-sea port. They asked the Lake Shore and Michigan Central Railroad for a rate reduction to ship crude oil to their Cleveland refineries. There, he became involved in the temperance movement and advocated racial equality. The company collapsed when the war undercut commercial demand for salt. Flagler encouraged fruit farming and settlement along his railway line and made many gifts to build hospitals, churches and schools in Florida. When convict labor proved insufficient to solve the South’s labor shortages, industrialists used another system of forced labor that targeted African Americans: debt peonage. 2) Debate runs about the origin of this pen name. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. '"[46] Flagler served as an active part of Standard Oil until 1882. Flagler suffered additional family tragedies when his oldest daughter died from complications of childbirth in 1899. These included, among many others, Continental Oil, which became Conoco, now part of ConocoPhillips; Standard of Indiana, which became Amoco, now part of BP; Standard of California, which became Chevron; Standard of New Jersey, which became Esso (and later, Exxon), now part of ExxonMobil; Standard of New York, which became Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil; and Standard of Ohio, which became Sohio, now part of BP. His son by his first marriage, Stephen V. Harkness, became Elizabeth's stepson. It opened in 1888. He worked for Lamon G. Harkness and Company, owned by his uncle, where he made a salary of five dollars per month. Em…, Florida Progress Corp The average laborer in 1905 earned $390 a year and surgeons averaged $1625 a year. It was reported that people along the railway line waited all night for the passing of the funeral train as it traveled from Palm Beach to St. [22] The New York State Legislature's Hepburn Committee in 1879 conducted hearings in response to the complaints of local merchants that were not involved in the oil trade in order to investigate railroad rebate practices. In 1885, Standard Oil moved its corporate headquarters to New York City to the iconic 26 Broadway location. [66], On February 24, 2006, a statue of Flagler was unveiled in Key West near the spot where the Over-Sea Railroad once terminated. Birthday . Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. At the time, Key West was Florida's most populous city, with a population of 20,000, and it was also the United States' deep water port closest to the canal that the U.S. government proposed to build in Panama. In 1893, Flagler bought land on a little known barrier island called Palm Beach. We correct them as soon as they come to our knowledge. Whitehall, Palm Beach, is open to the public as the Henry Morrison Flagler Museum; his private railcar No. He built the Royal Poinciana, which was the largest resort hotel in the world. In that spirit, he built the ornate Ponce de Leon Hotel on land that was once an orange grove. Generation. Encyclopedia.com. The couple traveled to Jacksonville and St. Augustine. Rockefeller, John D. In the kerosene industry, Standard Oil replaced the old distribution system with its own vertical system. June 26, 2016. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Flagler and Rockefeller eventually prevailed and the railroad sold all its oil interests to Standard. Henry Flagler, co-founder of Standard Oil, envisioned St. Augustine as an American Riviera. It is a timeless corner of the tropics where some of America’s most influential families came to play 120 years ago. Flagler's developments in Florida were built using cheap labor that exploited people in the systems of convict leasing and debt peonage used in the South for 50 years after the civil war. There were many mouths to feed and not enough jobs especially in the Northeast, the primary immigration point. Martin, Sidney Walter, Florida's Flagler University of Georgia Press, 1949. This project sparked Flagler's interest in creating a new "American Riviera." Flagler … Flagler was in a special position to make those deals due to his connections as a grain merchant. Several years later, in 1870, their only son, Henry Harkness Flagler, was born. created by factobot on … By the end of the 1870s, Standard was refining over 90% of the oil in the U.S.[17], In 1877, Standard clashed with Thomas A. Scott the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad, its chief hauler. Some sources claim that the number was about 1600. At the age of 14, after completing the eighth grade, Flagler moved to Bellevue, Ohio where he found work with his cousins in the grain store of L.G. "Henry Morrison Flagler," Dictionary of American Biography Base Set. Most Popular #67805. Though Flagler and Rockefeller had long maintained a policy of active silence with the press, they decided to make themselves more accessible and responded with conciliatory comments such as "capital and labor are both wild forces which require intelligent legislation to hold them in restriction. Flagler's widow died in 1917 and Whitehall passed to her niece, who sold it. Flagler built his new wife a large Southern-style marble home called Whitehall in Palm Beach. United States ; Florida (FL) St. Augustine ; St. Augustine - Things to Do ; Flagler College; Search. "[26] To the critics Flagler and Rockefeller replied, "In a business so large as ours... some things are likely to be done which we cannot approve. He never recovered and died in Palm Beach of his injuries on May 20 at 83 years of age. Both properties were immediately successful. Most of his donations were made anonymously. They left behind a trail of beautiful homes and impressive history that few other communities can claim. By 1896, Flagler's railroad, the Florida East Coast Railway, reached Biscayne Bay. They named the company the Standard Oil Company, because they were attempting to stabilize and apply standards to the oil business. His half-brother Daniel had left Hopewell to live and work with his paternal uncle Lamon G. Harkness, who had a store in Republic, Ohio. [citation needed], In 1862, Flagler and his brother-in-law Barney Hamlin York (1833–1884) founded the Flagler and York Salt Company, a salt mining and production business in Saginaw, Michigan. In the meantime, his friend Rockefeller had gotten into the oil business. So he laid out a city across the lake and built homes, churches and government buildings, creating the city of West Palm Beach. Sexual assault was a constant threat for women caught in the system. If they refused the offer, Flagler and Rockefeller told them they would run them into bankruptcy and then cheaply buy up their assets at auction. She documented the company's espionage, price wars, heavy-handed marketing tactics, and courtroom evasions. 91 is preserved inside a Beaux Arts pavilion built to look like a 19th-century railway palace. Residents of the new city wanted to name it after Flagler, but he insisted that they call it Miami, an Indian name. The state was encouraging development by selling swampland for as little as 50 cents an acre. By 1872, Standard was the only refinery in Cleveland. Within six years, Henry was earning enough money to purchase a showy Victorian house in Bellevue. In the early 1900s Flagler, affiliated with John D. Rockefeller in the Standard Oil Company, conceived and oversaw the construction of the Florida Keys Over-Sea Railroad, paving the way for the Keys' evolution into the … [9] The partnership eventually grew into the Standard Oil Corporation. Hopewell, NY. The state provided incentive in the form of 3,840 acres (15.5 km2) for every mile (1.6 km) of track constructed.[53]. He died on May 20th, 1913. Flagler lived to see the Key West railroad open in 1912. In exchange, the railroad would get large shipments of oil. ." Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-flagler. Tour full of interesting facts - Flagler College. [14], Undeterred, though vilified for the first time by the press, Flagler and Rockefeller continued with their self-reinforcing cycle of buying competing refiners, improving the efficiency of operations, pressing for discounts on oil shipments, undercutting competition, making secret deals, raising investment pools, and buying rivals out. He and Shourd had spent time in St. Augustine, Florida. Rather than try to influence the price of crude oil directly, Standard Oil had been exercising indirect control by altering oil storage charges to suit market conditions. He masterminded the plan that transformed Standard Oil into the most successful monopoly of the nineteenth century. Flagler originally intended West Palm Beach to be the terminus of his railroad system, but in 1894 and 1895, severe freezes hit the area, causing Flagler to reconsider. But Standard Oil adapted, developing its own European presence, expanding into natural gas production in the U.S., then into gasoline for automobiles, which until then had been considered a waste product. Farming in Dade County has always been … Chains, hounds, whips, sweat boxes, stringing up by the thumbs — these were part of everyday existence in convict camps. Built on a Legacy Flagler College celebrates over 50 years of providing a rich, comprehensive liberal arts education in a small, supportive environment. [19]This subsidiary, the Empire Transportation Company, which Joseph D. Potts created in 1865 and also ran, owned other assets including a small fleet of ships on the Great Lakes. "[37], Flagler and Rockefeller continued to consolidate their oil interests as best they could until New Jersey, in 1909, changed its incorporation laws to effectively allow a re-creation of the trust in the form of a single holding company. Henry Morrison Flagler was born January 2, 1830 in Hopewell, New York, to Isaac and Elizabeth Flagler. As Flagler aged, he became more reclusive, leaving the entertaining to Mary Lily. Whitehall is now a museum honoring Flagler's life and Florida history. Henry Flagler even built quarters for his workers across Lake Worth from the hotel. As the company grew, the owners decided to organize it as a stock corporation, a relatively new business structure. However, the salt market collapsed after the Civil War and Flagler lost approximately $100,000. The Rockefellers went on to become one of the most prominent families in the United States. It supplied kerosene by tank cars that brought the fuel to local markets, and tank wagons then delivered to retail customers, thus bypassing the existing network of wholesale jobbers. Cleveland became very well known for oil refining, as, "More and more crude oil was shipped from the oil regions to Cleveland for the refining process because of transportation facilities and the aggressiveness of the refiners there. As a last name Flagler was the 26,261 st most popular name in 2010. For a while, it served as a hotel. 21 May 1898 in New York City; d. 10 December 1990 in Los Angeles, California), controversial twentieth-century indu…, Henry II (Holy Roman emperor and German king), Henry Morton Stanley Circumnavigates Africa's Lake Victoria and Explores the Entire Length of the Congo River, https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-flagler. Lewis was related to Henry Flagler through his mother, Louise Wise Lewis Francis, who was the niece of Mary Lily Kenan Flagler, who married Henry Flagler in 1901 making him Lewis' great uncle. In less than four months in 1872, in what was later known as "The Cleveland Conquest" or "The Cleveland Massacre", Standard Oil had absorbed 22 of its 26 Cleveland competitors. Convict leasing was ended in South Carolina (1897), Louisiana (1901), Mississippi(1907), Georgia (1908), Arkansas (1913) and in 1923 Florida finally followed suit. Flagler College. Also, on July 28, 2006, a statue of Flagler was unveiled on the southeast steps of Miami's Dade County Courthouse, located on Miami's Flagler Street. capitalist, philanthropist Born: 1/2/1830 Birthplace: Hopewell, N.Y. After modest success in the grain business, in 1865 he joined John D. Rockefeller in the oil business in a firm called Rockefeller, Andrews and Flagler (became Standard Oil in 1870). The National Petroleum Exchange opened in Manhattan in late 1882 to facilitate the oil futures trading. Rockefeller. Southern employers found that Northern workers often came for the winter months to escape the cold of the north and then would leave during the blistering summer months. Only his son Harry survived of the three children by his first marriage in 1853 to Mary Harkness. (1830–1913). Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. It was Henry M. Through this business, Flagler became acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, who worked as a commission agent with Hewitt and Tuttle for the Harkness Grain Company. [13] The cartel received preferential treatment as a high-volume shipper, which included not just steep rebates of up to 50% for their product but also rebates for the shipment of competing products. By the mid-1860s, Cleveland had become the center of the oil refining industry in America and Rockefeller left the grain business to start his own oil refinery. Most Popular ★ Boost . [61] In the 1900's Florida's population was just 528,000 so with the demand for laborers across the south and the shortage of jobs in the north, workers needing jobs were drawn to the south. Its heritage, however, extends back more than a century. Navigate through our interactive timeline to learn more about the College’s namesake, Henry Flagler, and how a hotel became a college. ." Flagler and Rockefeller finally gave up their dream of controlling all the world's oil refining. American Council of Learned Societies, 1928-1936. In the early 1880s, Flagler and Rockefeller created one of their most important innovations. On Apr 22, 1896, the Florida railroad arrived in the area and three months later on Jul 28 residents voted to incorporate a new city: Miami. Augustine. By 1869, Cleveland was the second largest refinery city, behind New York City. Two years later, he expanded his Florida holdings. (b. In 1935, the Key West railroad was destroyed in a hurricane. [56], On August 24, 1901, 10 days after his divorce, Flagler married Mary Lily at her family's plantation, Liberty Hall, and the couple soon moved into their new Palm Beach estate, Whitehall, a 55-room beaux arts home designed by the New York-based firm of Carrère and Hastings, which also had designed the New York Public Library and the Pan-American Exposition. Though the refunds issued amounted to no more than fifteen cents on the dollar, they put Standard Oil in position to undercut other oil refineries. After his first wife's death, Flagler developed a new business interest. [citation needed], Standard Oil had the same principal owners that Rockefeller, Andrews and Flagler had, give or take a few business associates: one of whom was Rockefeller's brother, William. Entrepreneur Born in New York #47. 1. Flagler wanted to take advantage of additional trade with Cuba and Latin America as well as the increased trade with the west that the Panama Canal would bring. The Spanish-influenced hotel made of concrete and native coquina shells was designed with the finest materials. She convinced railroad magnate Henry Flagler to extend the railroad down to the Miami river territory by supplying him with the land for a hotel and a railroad station for free. The Alcazar is today the Lightner Museum, next to the Casa Monica Hotel in St. Augustine that Flagler bought from Franklin W. Smith. [11], By 1869, there was three times more kerosene refining capacity than needed to supply the market, and the capacity remained in excess for many years. ... ( Julia Tuttle, called the “ Mother of Miami ” ),... For a rate reduction to ship crude Oil into the accusations of peonage at F.E.C the committee ultimately the. 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